Check All Station Name Province Station Number Data Available (Past 6 hours) Operation Schedule; ADAMS LAKE NEAR SQUILAX: BC: 08LD003: Yes: Continuous: ADAMS RIVER NEAR SQUILAX "[30] However, linguistic and other evidence suggests that they are descended from Great Plains tribes that were driven out of their historic territory by the Blackfeet in the 16th century. Westslope cutthroat trout, bull trout, kokanee salmon (the landlocked Pacific salmon), rainbow trout and white sturgeon are among the many species found in the river. [83][84] The other sections of the river flow through far more rugged terrain and are characterized by braiding, low nutrient content, shifting channels and coarse sediments, making it difficult for riparian zones to be established, as is with most of its upper and lower tributaries. Dams of the Columbia Basin on the Kootenay River. [142], Fishing is generally good on the middle reaches of the Kootenay River and in Kootenay Lake. Ecosystem Function Discussion Paper 21/3/18 3/7 Upper Columbia Basin Environmental Collaborative Figure 2. [88] Fish fauna in the region are largely shared with those of the Columbia Unglaciated ecoregion to the south, which has about fifty species of fish and only one endemic species. 2 water storage dams that don't generate power. [60][61], Because of the rugged terrain and rough waters on the two rivers, especially on the glacier-fed Kootenay, steamboat operation was extremely difficult and proved to be anything but cost effective. Source elevations and coordinates derived from Google Earth using data from Canadian topo maps, The Canadian portion of the Columbia basin encompasses 102,823 square kilometres (39,700 sq mi) of which 50,298 square kilometres (19,420 sq mi) drain to the Kootenay River, The usage of the term "Canadian portion of the Columbia Basin" in this article denotes any parts of the Columbia River watershed that drain to the Columbia upstream of where it crosses the Canada-US border, regardless if the tributary passes through the United States as well (such as the Kootenay). He crossed over the Canadian Rockies through Howse Pass and eventually arrived on the banks of the Kootenay, which he thought to be the Columbia. After exploitation of the Kootenay basin by fur trappers, the beaver population was nearly exterminated as well. [2] (There is, however, a Swan River further southeast in Montana. Even in relatively uninhabited regions of the watershed, logging roads criss-cross the hills and mountainsides. The Baillie-Grohman Canal, as it was called, had one lock which was 30 metres (98 ft) long and 9 metres (30 ft) wide. Instead of crossing the Rockies, as Thompson did, Palliser set out from Fort Colville, a Hudson's Bay Company trading post near Kettle Falls on the Columbia River. Mountain ranges in the region generally trend from northwest to southeast and define drainage patterns with their steep and dramatic vertical relief, with the exception of the Kootenay itself which cuts westwards at its southern bend. Located: Kootenay River, West Kootenay Road, 24km northeast of Castlegar; Completed: 1928; Owner: FortisBC; Generating capacity: 57 MW; Description: A complex near the dam was constructed to house workers. The whole area was known by the name, Dolina Ooteschenie, meaning "valley of consolation". I'm left to fend for myself on the Raft and I almost immediately run into icy trouble. A quick look at a map shows the problem: while all the Canadian … The Corra Linn Dam has held water in Kootenay Lake since it was commissioned in 1932 to generate electricity from the Kootenay River. [134] Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park, which sits right next to Kootenay in the Rocky Mountains, also has an extensive trail system affording extensive views of the surrounding ranges. [47] The expedition's findings were later to become important transportation routes through the Rockies to the Kootenays area, and the trail that they followed later became the route of the Canadian Pacific Railway. [87] Most of the Kootenay basin lies within the Columbia Glaciated ecoregion which encompasses much of northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, northwestern Montana and southern British Columbia. To a limited extent, the Kootenay River has also been used for navigation. © 2007 Touchstones Nelson: Museum of Art and History. Over 90 percent of the Kootenay basin is forested, but only about 10 percent of the area is not affected by some kind of lumber-industry development, now defined as about twenty "roadless areas" or "blocks", with 18 in the US.[101]. 4 major hydroelectric dams, all built before 1984. The Kootenay River runs 781 kilometres (485 mi) from its headwaters in the Kootenay Ranges of the Canadian Rockies, flowing from British Columbia's East Kootenay region into northwestern Montana, then west into the northernmost Idaho Panhandle and returning to British Columbia in the West Kootenay region, where it joins the Columbia at Castlegar. [50] Originally, the river (and the area) were known as "Stud Horse" by the early miners, but government officials changed it to Wild Horse. Above its confluence with the Columbia, the Kootenay is comparable in terms of length, drainage area and volume, but has a steeper gradient and is characterized by larger falls and rapids. At Wardner, British Columbia, the Kootenay widens into the Lake Koocanusa reservoir, formed by Libby Dam over 130 kilometres (81 mi) downstream at Jennings, Montana. It is part of the Columbia River basin, being tributary via Kootenay Lake to the Kootenay River, which is a tributary of the Columbia River. 1 of 2 The Corra Linn Dam is located on the Kootenay River. The current Columbia River Treaty is focused primarily on electricity generation and flood storage. The lock was also too small to accommodate the vessel. In addition there are five hydroelectric dams on the lower Kootenay River in British Columbia. The Kootenay continues southeast, receiving the Palliser River from the left, and flows south into a gorge at the confluence with the White River. [27] Faults in the Kootenay River watershed trend north-northwest to south-southeast as is common in much of British Columbia. All except Corra Linn, which was built to raise and regulate the level of Kootenay Lake. The origin and meaning of the name "Kootenai" is uncertain. We monitor the lake levels throughout the year, which are governed by the 1938 International Joint Commission order on Kootenay Lake. 6 tips to keep you safe . As a result, this proposed river diversion was never undertaken. Upper Bonnington dam on the Kootenay River with spillways open. Three of the dams are of the run-of-the-river type, the 4.5 km length of the falls is now impounded in small lakes. Fisherville eventually was abandoned, its buildings left to ruin, and little remains of the settlement today. Within a 55-kilometre drive, there are 11 dams on the Columbia, Kootenay and Pend d’Oreille rivers. [119], Solely built for the purpose of regulating water flow into Kootenay Lake, Duncan Dam, the first dam built for the treaty, was raised in 1967 and increased the 25-kilometre (16 mi) long size of Duncan Lake to a reservoir 45 kilometres (28 mi) long. Kootenay River Bridge is 0.8 km upstream of the powerhouse and provides access to canal, powerhouse and switchyard. Negotiated in 1961 between the governments of the two countries, the Columbia River Treaty attempted to ratify these problems. The river is navigable from Bonners Ferry, Idaho, to Nelson, B.C. Under this usage, for example, the Kootenay, which originates in Canada, flows back to the US, and returns to Canada, is considered part of the "Canadian portion", whereas the, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Steamboats of the upper Columbia and Kootenay Rivers, Purcell Wilderness Conservancy Provincial Park and Protected Area, List of tributaries of the Columbia River, List of dams in the Columbia River watershed, U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kootenai River, "Kootenay Lake Outflow Near Corra Linn – Monthly Mean Discharge", "A River Runs Over It: To the Kootenai Tribe, the Falls is a sacred site - the center of the world, a place where tribal members can commune with spiritual forces", "United States Geological Survey Topographic Maps", "Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes / Flathead Indian Reservation", "David Thompson: Canadian Fur Trader and Mapmaker", "Fisherville—The Town That Sat on a Gold Mine", "Looking Up Wild Horse Creek/Wild Horse Bridge", "Shining Waters: Doukhobors in the Castlegar Area", "Doukhobors exodus from Saskatchewan to BC because of land loss, 1908-1913", "Early Doukhobor community sawmill Circa 1910", "Grand Forks, BC orchard and village Circa 1920s", "Brilliant Suspension Bridge opening 1913", "Wetland Action Plan for British Columbia", "Historical and Cultural Overview of the Flathead Reservation", "Montana Indians: Their History And Location", "Kootenai River Basin – Economic Base of the Watershed", "Kootenai River Basin—LAND USE (Economic Base)", "The Kootenays: Flathead Valley Controversy", "Fording Coal LTD Investigating Possibility of Developing Coal Mine in Flathead's North Fork", "Columbia River Treaty: Design and Purposes", "Dams of the Columbia Basin & Their Effects on the Native Fishery", "Treaty relating to cooperative development of the water resources of the Columbia River Basin (with Annexes)", "Columbia River Treaty: History and 2014/2024 Review", "Cross-Country Skiing, Snowshoeing and Ski Touring", "Stream Access in Montana—Rights and Responsibilities of Landowners and Recreationists", Bathymetric Surveys of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, Bonneville Slide/Bridge of the Gods land bridge, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kootenay_River&oldid=999833477, Articles with dead external links from February 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2012, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 05:08. During the summers of 1969 to 1972 Stanley Triggs visited the area in Southeastern British Columbia that was to be flooded by the construction in Montana of the Libby Dam on the Kootenay River. A long-range venture was undertaken which resulted in full development of the Kootenay River power potential between Kootenay Lake and the Columbia River. The Kootenay 3 River population of white sturgeon extends from Kootenai Falls, Montana, located 50 river-kilometres below Libby Dam (Idaho), downstream through Kootenay Lake to Corra Linn Dam on the lower West Arm of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. [58][59] A gold rush on the Kootenay and later silver and galena strikes in its western basins in the late 19th century drew thousands of miners and settlers to the region, who soon were followed by the arrival of railroads and steamboats. [45] Kootenay Lake was called "Flat Bow Lake". It receives the Fisher River from the south and turns west, passing Libby, Montana. [57] In 1882, as part of an incentive to help navigation on the Golden-Jennings run and possibly divert water northwards to the Interior of British Columbia in order to provide flood control for a low-lying area south of Kootenay Lake, called Kootenay Flats, European adventurer William Adolf Baillie-Grohman proposed the creation of a canal between the Kootenay River and Columbia Lake. Finally, we must address the imbalance in dam management between the three Canadian Treaty dams and Libby Dam on the Kootenay River in Montana, the sole American treaty dam. Cast the rig out and let it find bottom until it stops. The seven dams on the Kootenay serve many purposes, ranging from generation of local electricity to regulation of Columbia River flow between Canada and the United States. The best season for fishing is from June to November. There was already a small settlement on the site, called Waterloo, but Verigin renamed it Brilliant, for the "sparkling waters"[69] of the river. Kootenay River originates in the Beaverfoot Range in the Rocky Mountains and flows south into Montana. As with many Pacific Northwest rivers, many dams were built on the Kootenay in the 20th century to generate hydroelectricity, and protect against floods and droughts. [33] Notably, the Ktunaxa were the first tribe west of the Rockies to capture and use feral European-introduced horses for their own use.[34]. It has three generating units with an operating head of 21 m (70 ft). Commercial navigation began with steamboats in the 19th century to transport ores, lumber, passengers and other imported and exported products between the Kootenay River valley and the Canadian Pacific Railway station at Golden, British Columbia. The Bonnington Falls along the Kootenay River was an important salmon fishery for Sinixt First Nations peoples. Dams, power plants and diversions of the Kootenay River, of which there are many, have been built for a variety of reasons throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. In the spring of 1808, he set off down the Kootenay River, this time reaching present-day Montana and Idaho where he established Kullyspell House and Saleesh House, trading posts on Lake Pend Oreille and the Clark Fork, respectively. In Canada, these include those listed below as well as many others. [56], When the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) finished its transcontinental line across southern British Columbia, steamboats began to ply the upper Columbia and Kootenay Rivers, carrying passengers, produce, ore, and other trade items through the region to be distributed via the CPR's line at Golden. [64][66] The transit of North Star to Columbia Lake was the last time the canal was ever used by a steamboat and marked the end of the steamboat era on the Kootenay. Sheri Regnier; Jan. 14, 2021 12:00 a.m. [81], The Northwest Power and Conservation Council divides the Kootenay River watershed into six biomes: aquatic (rivers and lakes), riparian zones, wetlands, grassland/shrubs, moderately wet forest, and dry forest. Right: BC Hydro’s Kootenay Canal facility. The Kootenay River originates in the Rocky Mountains near the source of the Columbia River. 1.3.1 Flathead River dams; 1.4 Yakima River dams; 1.5 Willamette River dams; 1.6 Santiam River dams. While Canada and the US currently co-manage the three Canadian dams, the US Army Corps of Engineers has exclusive management of Libby. [147] The run, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) from east to west, includes Class IV+ rapids and includes Kootenai Falls, which rarely has been run safely, in the middle of its course. and Kaniksu National Forest (part of the Idaho Panhandle National Forests, which stretch southwards into the state). Eventually this complex became the operational control and maintenance centre for the five Kootenay River plants operated by West Kootenay Power and headquarters for power-line maintenance. Hydroelectric power generated by the hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River powered at least ten aluminum smelters during the mid-20th century. Its drainage basin encompasses an area almost 400 kilometres (250 mi) from north to south and 250 kilometres (160 mi) from east to west, roughly defining a region of the Pacific Northwest known as the Kootenays. [135] Kikomun Creek Provincial Park, on the northeast shore of Lake Koocanusa, includes campgrounds and access to boat launches on the east shore of the lake. The West Kootenay, however, is transitioning from a coal-mining to a tourism-based economy,[108] and the rest of the Kootenay region is also starting to do so. 7 smaller hydroelectric dams. The glacier that formed Kootenay Lake caused the river to back up into an enormous body of water that stretched all the way to Libby, Montana, near where the Libby Dam now stands, and possibly even connected to Lake Pend Oreille, which also was much enlarged at the time. The Flathead is a tributary of the Clark Fork River-Pend Oreille River system which borders the Kootenay watershed on the southwest. After the glaciers retreated, Kootenay Lake receded to its present level and the Kootenay Flats were formed. Photo about Kootenai river dam in montana mountains. Also, because the Kootenay's primary sources are glaciers, fishing conditions are quite different from most rivers in Montana and Idaho, which are fed by snowmelt. The Doukhobors, a Russian religious sect, immigrated and established a short-lived colony, Brilliant, at the Kootenay's mouth; subsequently dispersing into many settlements, they contributed to the region's timber and agricultural industries. [23], Many river basins border on the Kootenay—some are part of the Columbia Basin, while others drain to distant shores of the North American continent. The Brilliant Expansion Project saw the addition second powerhouse located immediately downstream of the Brilliant Dam on the Kootenay River. Combine that with the sheer width of the the river, and it can be difficult to fish without a boat in most portions of the river. [100] Class I represents bodies of water that are navigable and suitable for recreation. Wildlife: The river canyon provides a year round home to white tail deer with frequent visits by mule deer, elk, and moose. [16][17], Below Libby Dam the river, now known as the Kootenai, forms the "Big Bend" around the south side of the Purcell Mountains. [46] They re-blazed the trail for many miles and returned to Kootenay Lake by mid-October of the same year. [58] Later vessels, such as the Gwendoline, had mixed success. Kootenay Lake-Wikipedia [150] Larger craft such as houseboats are able to travel on Kootenay and Koocanusa Lakes. [48], In 1863, a gold strike at the confluence of the Wild Horse and Kootenay Rivers in the East Kootenay region[49] resulted in the Wild Horse Gold Rush in which between three and ten thousand men descended upon the area and the gold rush town of Fisherville was built; it had to be moved when it was discovered the town sat atop some of the richest deposits. Kootenay River. [83] In the Canada portion of the watershed, an alpine meadow ecozone occupies most of the high ridges and valleys of the mountains. Origins of West Kootenay hydropower. Species almost entirely gone that were once common in the area include the white-tailed jackrabbit, pygmy short-horned lizard, band-tailed pigeon and passenger pigeon. [citation needed] In the 19th century, a Canadian explorer, David Thompson, became the first recorded European to reach the Kootenay and established trading posts throughout the region. [25] lower on the river, uses all the water from the Kootenay Canal to produce hydroelectric power, returning the water to the river at this point. Upper Bonnington dam on the Kootenay River with spillways open. Kootenay River The Kootenay is a major river in the Northwest Plateau, within the borders of southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and northern Montana and Idaho in the United States. Lower Bonnington Dam. Most of the coal from the East Kootenay coalfields is exported to Japan and Korea. They crossed over the Rockies at a more northerly spot and traveled down the Blaeberry River to the Columbia, eventually discovering Columbia Lake and establishing there the trading post Kootenae House. This map allows you to explore the Columbia River Basin and changes that have occurred since construction of Columbia River Treaty Dams. [64], The last ship ever to pass through the canal and one of the last on the Kootenay was the North Star, also piloted by Captain Armstrong. [62] The first steamboat to actually run the Kootenay was the Annerly in 1893. For Upper Bonnington, the first dam built on the river, the original goal was to improve navigation between Kootenay Lake and the Kootenay's mouth on the Columbia by drowning the dangerous Bonnigton Falls rapids that also blocked fish migration, and hopefully introducing fish to the upper river by constructing a fish ladder. The river was described with slightly different names by two groups of the local Ktunaxa (Kootenai) Indian tribes. "[41] Of course, wine, beer, rum and other intoxicating drinks were imported in time. Maintain a safe distance from waterways that could have unstable footing or slippery banks. [36] After spending a winter in Montana, he tried to reach the Columbia by traveling down the Pend Oreille River but failed in this attempt, eventually returning to Kootenae House via the Kootenay River northwards the following spring.[37][38]. Both are tributaries of the South Saskatchewan River, which is part of the Hudson Bay drainage basin. By 1913, there were already more than 5,000 Doukhobors living in the region. 2. 1. Because of the steep rapids and falls between Kootenay Lake and the river's mouth, the Kootenay (with the exception of its tributary, the Slocan River)[92] has never been a significant stream for the annual runs of Columbia River salmon. Armstrong was forced to portage the vessel and eventually made it to Golden. This dam, 4.5 km. [69] Verigin Jr. died in 1939 and by 1963, almost all Doukhobor lands were sold to the government. At 50,298 square kilometres (19,420 sq mi) in size, the Kootenay river's watershed is one of the largest sub-basins of the Columbia Basin. Located: Kootenay River, West Kootenay Road, 24km northeast of Castlegar; Completed: 1928; Owner: FortisBC; Generating capacity: 57 MW; Description: A complex near the dam was constructed to house workers. [127][128][129], Many national, provincial and state parks, wilderness preserves, protected areas and national forests lie partially or wholly within the Kootenay River watershed. This focus is on ecosystems and habitats, rather than a … The river becomes significantly larger at its confluence with the Vermilion River, which is actually the larger of the two where they meet near Kootenay Crossing. [126], The proposal was strongly opposed by both environmentalists as well as local residents. This biologically diverse area, the Kootenay Flats, once supported over 1 million migratory birds every year, before the river was diked and many of the wetlands converted to agriculture. None provide for navigation or fish passage. From its highest headwaters to its confluence with the Columbia River, the Kootenay falls more than 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) in elevation. Highway 3A crosses the Kootenay River about three kilometres north of the junction and stays on the north side for most of the way to Nelson. Thompson, his party referred to it as aqkinmiluk, simply meaning `` ''. 99 ] Although originally valuable minerals such as gold and silver were unearthed, today coal the! Would otherwise be spilled toll-free Ferry that crosses between Kootenay Bay and Balfour major hydroelectric,... Major center in the summer of 1929 endemic fish within the Columbia River. his! River knew it as Palliser 's River. footing or slippery banks [ 151 ], the Columbia rock! 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